Friday, November 21, 2008
Thursday, November 20, 2008
Hyperrealism is a recent movement in art, which exists as an outgrowth of the Photorealism movement of the late 1950s. In fact, the French word Hyperealisme was coined in 1973 to mean photorealism. Unlike photorealism, which results in painting directly from a photograph, hyperrealism incorporates the use of photographs as reference, but distorts highly-realistic work and blurs the line between reality and fantasy. Examples of common hyperrealities are television (namely “reality” TV), movies and amusement parks.
Mueck’s sculptures are highly-realistic, yet under- or overexaggerated, inciting curiosity and immediate reaction. His attention to detail with regard to skin folds, hair, and the like is incredible. The “psychological confrontation for the viewer is to recognize and assimilate two contradictory realities” (http://paintalicious.org/2007/09/14/ron-mueck-hyper-realist-sculptor.html): the human figure depicted with detail and care and the apparent distortion of size. His sculptures are recognizable yet abnormal, and he controls the experience of the viewers by confusing them.
Untitled (Boy) is a larger-than-life sculpture of a what appears to be a teenage boy ducking or crouching in fear of the viewer. The boy gazes out over the viewer with a look of apprehension and guilt. He is too big for his surroundings; yet he is trying to hide from them. Hiding from anyone or anything is virtually impossible for this boy, considering his absurd size.
Artist: Audrey Flack
Artist: Walt Disney & Disneyland
www.brooklynmuseum.org/exhibitions/ron_mueck/video.php (***please be advised that this video contains representational nudity.)
David. (Sept. 14, 2007) Ron Mueck:
Hyperrealist Sculptor. Retrieved March 30,
2008 from http://paintalicious.
Flack, Audrey. (1977). Marilyn (Vanitas).
Retrieved March 30, 2008 from http://cda.
Lippencott, James. (2005). Disneyland hits the Big
Five Oh. Retrieved March 30,2008
Meisel, Louis K. (1993). Audrey Flack. Photorealism
Since 1980, 205.
Sutton, Polly. (2001) 49th Venice Biennale: Ron
Mueck’s “Boy”. Retrieved March 30, 2008
Wednesday, November 19, 2008
This WebQuest requires students to investigate the idea of paradigm shifts through imagery found in advertising from the 20th and 21st century.
Breaking Ground Advertising Wants You!
Breaking Ground Advertising is a progressive company looking for bright, young concept artists to decode advertisements from the past in order to create ads of the future. We want to stay ahead of the curve and understand that, sometimes, you have to regress before you can progress.
Take a moment and think of all the different imagery you see in advertisements in just one, normal day. Do you think advertisements have always looked the same throughout the last two decades? Have their messages changed? Have our belief systems changed? How and why? Just think of all the changes that happened with the advent of television in the 1950s. How will paradigms and advertisements change in the next 50 years? What will television commercials look like in the year 2058? Breaking Ground Advertising believes you can answer these important questions!
In this WebQuest, you will be guided through information and imagery that will give you a better understanding of what paradigms are and how they can shift. It is designed to strengthen your critical thinking skills and awareness of the messages and belief systems that lie beneath the images in advertisements. Remember, there are no right or wrong answers, just creative predictions based on your online research.
It is your objective to research, analyze your findings and then use the new information to design/create a print advertisement or a TV commercial for the year 2050. Your advertisement/TV commercial for the year 2050 will be based on an advertisement/TV commercial from the past. By the "past", we mean from the 1950s to the present.
In order to be seriously considered for this position with Breaking Ground Advertising, you will be responsible for submitting your research notes, your final advertisement and a brief presentation based on your research.
"The masses can only think in images and can only be influenced by means of pictures. Only pictures can frighten or persuade them and become the causes of their actions... To them, the unreal is almost as important as the real?
Before you can start generating ideas for your advertisements, you'll need to conduct some necessary research. In order to create successful advertisements with strong undercurrents, you'll need to fully understand what a paradigm is and how paradigm shifts occur. You will also learn how historical research connects the present with the past and aids in the development of fresh, new ideas. Your advertisement will also reveal your own individual perspectives and ethical/moral concerns, which will then inform the paradigms that manifest in your chosen imagery, text and overall layout.
1. Take a look at the following advertisements:
1a. While viewing these advertisements, follow these simple guidelines to begin deconstructing the images. Answer all of these questions on a separate piece of paper for each image.
Review the VISUALS
Look at the images. Take notes on what you see.
What are the people in the advertisement doing?
What are the expressions on their faces?
What clothes are they wearing?
Who or what might be left out of the picture? Why?
Review the TEXT
Read every word in the ad- even the smallest font
What do the words say? what adjectives or adverbs are used?
How do they say it?
What might be left out? Why?
Review the LAYOUT
How do the words relate to the images?
Notice how your eye moves as it first encounters the ad?
Do you think your eyes are attracted to the brightest portion of the page?
Are the major elements of the ad placed along an inverted "S"?
Are the major elements placed in each of the three thirds of the page?
2. Take a look at the following commercials:
2a. While viewing these commercials, follow these simple guidelines to begin deconstructing what you see. Answer all of these questions on a separate piece of paper for each commercial.
Review the VISUALS
Watch each commercial a few times. Take notes on what you see and hear.
What is happening in the commercial?
What messages or paradigms are featured?
What is the intended mood of the commercial?
How are the commercials shot (as in camera angles, pace of the commercial, etc.)
Is there music or voice overs? What kind?
Who or what might be left out of the commercial?
Review the WORDS being spoken.
What is being said? What words are being used? How are they being spoken?
Are the words (or the way the words are spoken) directed toward a certain demographic or population?
Review the LAYOUT
How to the words relate to the images?
Notice how you feel the first time you watch the commercial? How about the second time?
How do you think others feel when watching the commercials? Who do you think is the most effected by this kind of advertising?
3. Based on your research and the criteria below, create an advertisement for the year 2050.
Ground Breaking Advertising needs you to join our concept development team!
Choose a print advertisement or TV commercial from the decades between 1950 to the present.The advertisement/commercial can come from any industry (i.e., beauty, airlines, cigarettes, computers, etc.), but cannot include nudity or profanity. We are discussing the importance of paradigms and paradigm shifts over decades of time, so some material may contain mature themes and could be offensive, so choose wisely! Be ready to defend your choices and ideas!
Your advertisement should be a print advertisement or a TV commercial.
The print advertisement can be created using any media and should be in color. Black and white advertisements will only be accepted if the use of a grayscale design is relative and necessary to convey a particular paradigm or message. The overall design should include an image(s), text and the name of the product being advertised. The image(s) should convey the primary meaning in your ad with text as a support. Minimum size for your print advertisement should be 18x24. You will be presenting this image to the Breaking Ground Advertising concept development team, so your advertisement has to be visually accessible from all angles in the meeting room! You may work large, if you are so inclined. Digital work will have to be enlarged and printed to meet these specifications as well.
The TV commercial can be no longer than three minutes and length and, again, should not contain profanity or overtly offensive material. You should use a digital video camera and should be able to download the commercial to a computer. Be sure to prepare before you shoot your commercial! This means write a script, rehearse and edit, where necessary. Commercials can be created in iMovie or other video software. Again, this will be presented to the concept development team, so you will need the proper equipment (laptop, projector, TV, etc.) to present.
Good luck and we look forward to working with you!
Now that you have completed your advertisement, submit your ad to our screening assistant. He/She will review the work and decide whether it's Breaking Ground Advertising material. Once the work has been reviewed, all participants will meet in the conference room for a final presentation and assessment. Prior to this meeting, the screening assistant should make sure all necessary equipment is available for the display of print ads and commercials.
When it comes time to present your work, make sure to include:
1. The central focus of your advertisement/commercial
2. How you evolved the product from the past or present and into the future
3. How the layout, color palette and design are significant to your message
3. Why you chose to pick this particular object and/or theme
All of this information should be word processed in a one-page summary and submitted along with your ad/commercial.
Tuesday, November 18, 2008
John P. Charlton of Philadelphia patented the postcard in 1861. The first postcard in the United States was created in 1893 to advertise the World’s Columbian Exhibition in Chicago. Shortly thereafter the United States government, via the U.S. Postal Service, allowed printers to publish a 1-cent postcard (the "Penny Postcard").
For more than 100 years, postcards have been a way to communicate with others while on vacation or far away from loved ones. Postcards usually feature a visually pleasing photograph or design on one side and spaces for writing and an address on the other.
Andrew Newell Wyeth is an American realist painter and regionalist artist. He is one of the best known of the 20th century and sometimes referred to as the "Painter of the People" due to his popularity with the American public. Wyeth's favorite subject is the land and inhabitants around his hometown of Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania and those near his summer home in Cushing, Maine. He conceived the idea for the painting while recuperating from a severe illness, when he slowly roamed the fields wearing a pair of boots that had once been part of Howard Pyle’s costume collection and watching his feet and the ground beneath. The painting may symbolize death itself or man’s rejection of illness and death.
For Wyeth, the Pennsylvania countryside meant solid stone walls and soggy, rich earth, in contrast to Maine, which seemed to him "all dry bones and desiccated sinews," as he was quoted as saying in the catalogue of his Metropolitan Museum of Art show. But Maine appealed to him strongly because of a simplicity that he found to be disappearing elsewhere in America.
PA Standards: Types of Writing (1.4); Quality of Writing (1.5); Speaking and Listening (1.6); Technology Education (3.6); Technological Devices (3.7); The Interactions Between People and Places (7.4); Production, Performance and Exhibition of Dance, Music, Theatre and Visual Arts (9.1)
NETS Standards: Facilitate and Inspire Student Learning and Creativity (1); Design and Develop Digital-Age Learning Experiences and Assessments (2); Model Digital-Age Work and Learning (3)
Goal: Students will use collage techniques to create a 5x7 postcard, based on the theme of “home”, which will then be sent to pen pals in different countries. Students will also learn to scan their postcards into the computer, save them for their portfolios and post them to the class art blog.
- Ponder and discuss the concept of “home”, what it means to them and why someone would choose to send a postcard over a letter, e-mail or by simply making a phone call.
- Discuss Andrew Wyeth and his concept of “home.
- Discuss the concept of pen pals and different styles of writing
- Discuss mixed media collage and use drawings or photographs to compose a collage design based on their concept of “home” for the front of their postcard.
- Discuss and think about the composition of their design.
- Discuss different kinds of writing styles and apply the appropriate style to their penal postcards.
- Learn to use a scanner to digitize and save their postcards to the computer as well as post them to the class art blog.
- Obtain a penal from the instructor (via www.sincerelyyourspenpals.com) and send their postcards to their given penal.
- Present their postcards to the class for group critique.
Requirements: Students will create a collaged postcard based on the theme of “home”, scan their postcards for blog posting and send their postcards to a penal in another country. Prior to mailing, students will present their postcards to the class.
Resource Materials/Visual Aids: Reproductions of Andrew Wyeth landscapes/portraits; a variety of postcards both new and vintage; an exemplar for the activity; books on postcard art/design; exemplars of mixed media/collage
Supplies/Materials: white cardstock (cut in 5x7 rectangles), 8.5 x 11 drawing paper, construction paper, periodicals (newspapers, magazines, etc.), pencils, colored pencils, markers, erasers, scissors, glue sticks
Teacher Preparation: Cut cardstock into 5x7 rectangles; research Andrew Wyeth and gather relevant examples; gather periodicals; register with Sincerely Yours Pen pals (based in Philadelphia); research postal cost
Introduction: Ask students what the term “home” means to them and discuss its different interpretations (i.e. where one lives, your house, where one was born, etc.) and what is meant by the saying “home is where the heart is”. Introduce and discuss postcards and why someone would choose to use a postcard to communicate over other forms of communication. Ask the students to think about how they would convey their sense of home visually. What happens if you are conveying your interpretation of home to someone from another country that may or may not speak a different language? What is a pen pal? What kind of writing do we use on a postcard?
1. To get started, students will take five minutes and write down a list of words that describe their sense of “home”.
2. Students can draw, cut out photographs or words and/or combine both mediums to create a collage based on their concept of home. Designs must not go beyond the edge of the postcard. Inform students that using other people’s images or words (copyright) are allowed for the educational purpose of this project.
3. Once their design is complete, students will turn their postcards over, divide the space in half and write a five-sentence correspondence on the left.
4. Once the postcard is complete (sans the recipient’s address), the instructor will take a quick look at the postcard for grammatical errors/overall design and give them a pen pal’s name and address to include on the right side of the postcard.
5. Students may then move to the computer for scanning, saving and posting to the class blog.
6. Students will get ready to present their cards to the class for group critique.
Critique/Evaluation/Assessment: Students will participate in a group critique of their postcards and discuss what is visually successful/unsuccessful. Instructor will evaluate the success of the postcard by its design, five-sentence correspondence and overall expression of the “home” theme. Students will be assessed according to their completion of the project, successful scanning and uploading of their project online and stated/written expectations in either rubric or self-checklist form.
Extensions: For early finishers, students can either go online and research their pen pal’s country of origin or write a series of interview questions for their pen pals for future postcards. Students may also design additional postcards for their own personal use.
Intro/ Motivation/Discussion -10-15 minutes
Short Demo – 10 minutes; Activity: 1-2 (45 minute) sessions
Vocabulary: Andrew Wyeth, collage, composition, pen pal, mixed media
Safety Concerns: scissors
Monday, November 17, 2008
Unlike monoprinting, monotyping produces a unique print, or monotype, because most of the ink is removed during the initial pressing. Although subsequent reprintings are sometimes possible, they differ greatly from the first print and are generally considered inferior. A second print from the original plate is called a "ghost print" or "cognate". Stencils, watercolor, solvents, brushes, and other tools are often used to embellish a monotype print. Monotypes are often spontaneously executed and with no previous sketch.
The monotype process was invented by Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione (1609-64), an Italian painter and etcher who was also the first artist to produce brushed sketches intended as finished and final works of art (rather than as studies for another work). He is the only Italian to have invented a printmaking technique. He began to make monotypes in the 1640s, normally working from black to white, and produced over twenty surviving ones, over half of which are set at night (Theseus finding the Arms of his Father, 1643). Few other artists used the technique until Degas, who made several, often working on them further after printing (Beside the Sea, 1876-7). In the twentieth century the technique became more popular.
Impressionism was a 19th century art movement that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists, who began exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s. The name of the movement is derived from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satiric review published in Le Charivari.
Characteristics of Impressionist painting include visible brushstrokes, open composition, emphasis on light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, the inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
Radicals in their time, early Impressionists broke the rules of academic painting. They began by giving colors, freely brushed, primacy over line, drawing inspiration from the work of painters such as Eugene Delacroix. They also took the act of painting out of the studio and into the world. Previously, not only still lifes and portraits, but also landscapes, had been painted indoors, but the Impressionists found that they could capture the momentary and transient effects of sunlight by painting en plein air. Painting realistic scenes of modern life, they emphasized vivid overall effects rather than details. They used short, "broken" brush strokes of pure and unmixed color, not smoothly blended, as was customary, in order to achieve the effect of intense color vibration.
Berthe Morisot (January 14, 1841 – March 2, 1895) was a painter and a member of the circle of painters in Paris who became known as the Impressionists. Morisot was born in Bourges, France into a successful bourgeois family. Both she and her sister Edma Morisot chose to become painters. Once Berthe Morisot settled on pursuing art, her family did not impede her career.
In 1864, she exhibited for the first time in the highly esteemed Salon de Paris. Sponsored by the government, and judged by academicians, the Salon was the official, annual exhibition of the Académie des beaux-arts in Paris. Her work was selected for exhibition in six subsequent Salons until, in 1874, she joined the "rejected" Impressionists in the first of their own exhibitions, which was founded by Cézanne, Degas, Monet, Morisot, Pissarro, Renoir, and Sisley. It was held at the studio of the photographer Nadar.
She became the sister-in-law of her friend and colleague, Édouard Manet, when she married his brother, Eugène. Her works include, not only landscapes, portraits, garden settings, and boating scenes, but also subjects portraying the comfort and intimacy of family and domestic life, as did her colleagues, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Mary Cassatt.
National Standards: Art materials and process (1); Aesthetics (2); Art History/Cultures (4); Criticism/Evaluation (5)
PA Standards: World History (8.4); Production, Performance and Exhibition of Dance, Music, Theatre and Visual Arts (9.1); Historical/Cultural Contexts (9.2); Critical Response (9.3); Aesthetic Response (9.4)
Goal: Students will demonstrate Impressionist painting techniques (i.e. Berthe Morisot) (quick line gesture, color) to create a monotype of a still life.
Requirements: Students will create a monotype print of a still life using water-based paints and Impressionist painting techniques on plexiglass.
Resource Materials/Visual Aids:
View from the Terrace at Mezy (1890) – Berthe Morisot
In the Garden (Women Gathering Flowers) – Berthe Morisot
View of the Bois de Boulogne (1889)
Examples of Monotypes
Exemplar for Project
Supplies/Materials: 11x14 piece of BK Reeves printmaking paper (or 90 lb. drawing paper) 11x14 piece of plexiglass (taped around the edges), gouache (red, blue, yellow, white), brushes (any size), brayers, spray bottle, water dishes, sponges, straws, paper towels, paper plates, 19th century classical music (French), CD player
1. Research and find examples of Impressionist paintings by Morisot involving gardens (flowers)
2. Tape edges of plexiglass with duct tape to prevent injuries
3. Make teaching board
4. Produce an exemplar
Introduction – Ask students to define the word impression (to make a mark by applying pressure). Ask them if an impression has to be a detailed representation or can it be a series of marks and shapes that captures the subject. Discuss impressionism through the paintings of Berthe Morisot. Explain how Impressionist painters were not concerned with rendering an exact image, but were more concerned with the overall effects of a painting rather than details; used active, visible brushstrokes; created movement in their paintings; emphasized light; worked outside en plein air; used ordinary subject matter and pure color from the tube.
Explain that, although the Impressionists painted on canvas in oil paints, there are other ways to make an impression of something and have students name a few. Explain the idea of a monotype and how it works (reverse image, plate). Explain to students that they will be working from a floral still life and making their own Impressionist monotype. Review few painting elements while they work (overlapping, composition, color choices.) Demonstrate during before and during the lesson.
1. Before beginning the monotype activity, make sure your plexiglass is clean of paints, inks or marks that could transfer onto your monotype print. Sometimes surprises are fun, but they can also be frustrating if they do not work with your painting.
2. Close your eyes for a moment. Imagine it is a warm, spring day in Paris, France, and you, Berthe Morisot, have gathered your painting supplies to embark on a day of painting in a garden. The sun is shining brightly and the colors of the flowers in the garden seem to have come directly from a tube of paint. There is a slight breeze and the flowers move back and forth to the rhythm of the wind. You can hear music in the distance, which you believe to be a result of a boating party along the Seine River. The soft scents of spring are all around you –fresh freesia and white gardenia - and you take them all in one with one deep breath. You can’t wait to begin painting.
3. Open your eyes and take a look at the still life. If you are not pleased with your view of the still life, move your seat to a more satisfying view. Remember, you are an impressionist, so you are not looking to create a detailed image of the flowers in the garden. You want your brushstrokes to be spontaneous and quick, and your colors full of light to achieve an overall “impression” of the flowers. Keep in mind your overall composition and use overlapping to show depth.
4. You have been given four colors – the three primary colors and white. Berthe Morisot would have used colors directly from the tube as did her Impressionist painter friends, but due to limited supplies, you will have to mix your colors to achieve orange, purple, green (the secondary colors). Make a few quick, gestural marks on your plexiglass to get a feel for the paint and surface. Wipe it away with a damp paper towel.
5. You have about 10 minutes to create a painting of the flowers. Be sure to cover as much of the plexiglass as possible. Please be aware that gouache can dry rather quickly, so using your straw to add a small bit of water every now and then is a good idea. Be careful not to add too much water or your paints will be runny! The more water you add, the less intense your colors will be. If you need to erase a mark, dampen a paper towel and wipe it from the plexiglass.
6. Once you are finished, put your painting aside. Wipe up any paint they may have gotten on the table with a paper towel. Take the printmaking paper and place it in front of you. Take your sponge and moisten it with water. Squeeze out excess water. Water should not be dripping from your sponge, but it should be moist enough to wet your printmaking paper.
7. Move your sponge back and forth across your paper, pressing gently. Make sure you sponge the entire paper. Be careful not to squeeze water onto your paper. You want to be able to tell its wet, but not soaking wet. If it seems too dry, press a little harder with your sponge. I will come around and check it.
8. Take your wet paper and slowly place it on top of the plexiglass. The size of the plexiglass and your paper are the same, so try and match up the corners to keep your painting from being crooked. Take your time! Work slowly!
9. Once you have your paper on your plexiglass, slowly, and with pressure, rub the paper with your hand. Hold the plexiglass still with your other hand. After you’ve rubbed the entire paper, take a brayer and with a forward motion only, roll over the paper a few times.
10. Lift a corner to check and see if your painting transferred. Remember, you will only get one monotype print from this painting. Depending on how much paint you used, you may get a second print called a ghost print.
11. Slowly peel the paper from the plexiglass and set the paper aside to dry.
12. Wet a paper towel and wipe your plate until all the paint is removed.
13. Rinse brushes, empty water and throw away paper plates. Place sponges in the bucket.
Closure – Students will clean –up and return supplies to their proper storage area to prepare for critique/discussion.
Critique the final monotypes and discuss challenges of the medium, if any.
Evaluate student’s success and understanding of impressionism and the monotype process by looking at their final monotypes.
Assess student comprehension of Impressionism and monotypes through a project rubric.
Extensions: Students who finish early can continue to make more monotypes by focusing on a different floral arrangement, moving to get a different perspective, perhaps abstracting the flowers in some way or students can embellish their existing monotype with other media.
Introduction and Motivation/Demo – 10
Class Demonstration/Participation – 30 minutes
Activity – 45-minute session
Vocabulary: monotype, Impressionism, Berthe Morisot, gesture, plexiglass, brayer, gouache, spontaneous brushstrokes, printmaking
Safety Concerns: Remind students to be careful with the plexiglass. Even though the edges have been duct taped, they could scratch themselves.
Stuckey, Charles F., Scott, William P., Lindsay, Susan G. Berthe Morisot: Impressionist
Saturday, November 15, 2008
Renaissance artists concentrated on investigating and representing the real world. Artists continued to depict religious subjects but also began to portray the human experience. There was renewed interest in naturalistic styles and formal rules of composition such as perspective. The Greek classical ideals of ideal proportions (for depicting the human body as well as for architecture and painting) also regained popularity.
Important artists of the Italian Renaissance were Donatello, Piero, Raphael (above image, School of Athens), Titian, along with Michelangelo and Leonardo Da Vinci. In northern Europe, important Renaissance artists were Albrect Dürer, Hans Holbein, and Pieter Brueghel.
Perspective is a technique for representing three-dimensional space on a flat surface. Many artists around the world have employed various techniques for portraying depth. However, it wasn't until the Renaissance that artists invented a mathematical system to show depth logically and consistently. The system of linear perspective gave artists a powerful new tool for creating realistic art.
Linear perspective is based on the way the human eye sees the world-objects which are closer appear larger, and more distant objects appear smaller. To create this illusion of space, the artist establishes a vanishing point on the horizon line. Objects are drawn using orthogonal lines, which lead to the vanishing point(s). In one-point perspective, the forms are seen face on and are drawn to a single vanishing point.
Interior design is the process of shaping the experience of interior space, through the manipulation of spatial volume as well as surface treatment. Not to be confused with interior decoration, interior design draws on aspects of environmental psychology, architecture, and product design in addition to traditional decoration. An interior designer is a person who is considered a professional in the field of interior design or one who designs interiors as part of their job. Interior design is a creative practice that analyzes programmatic information, establishes a conceptual direction, refines the design direction, and produces graphic communication and construction documents.
National Standards: Art materials and process (1); Aesthetics (2); Art History/Cultures (4); Criticism/Evaluation (5)
PA Standards: Measurement and Estimation (2.3); Geometry (2.9); Production, Performance and Exhibition of Dance, Music, Theatre and Visual Arts (9.1); Historical/Cultural Contexts (9.2); Aesthetic Response (9.4); Career Awareness and Planning (13.1)
Goal: Students will demonstrate knowledge of one-point perspective and composition to design a basic bedroom.
- Students will compare/contrast depth in master paintings and look at photographs of interiors by famous architects for use of composition and use of space.
- Students will use a ruler to create a one-point perspective drawing of a bedroom.
- Students will critique the finished bedrooms and discuss if their drawings were successful/unsuccessful using one-point perspective and composition.
Requirements: Students will draw and color a bedroom using one-point perspective.
Resource Materials/Visual Aids:
Leonardo Da Vinci – The Last Supper (1495)
Onchi Koshiro – White Walls (Scene in Suchuo) (1940)
Katsura Yuki – Work (1940)
Alberto Giacometti – Interior with a Bowl of Fruit (1953)
Yamaguchi Takeo – Work (Form) (1954)
Ishii Shigeo – State of Siege (1957)
Frank Lloyd Wright
Example of a finished “Bedroom Basics” project
Supplies/Materials: 2B Pencil, kneaded eraser, 12x18 white drawing paper, ruler, black Sharpie marker, colored pencils, artist tape
1. Research and find examples of paintings, which appear flat and have depth. Create handouts (i.e. vocabulary list) based on research.
2. Decide what the students should include in their bedroom and provide constraints.
3. Create exemplar of finished product to show students.
Introduction – Review one-point perspective. Compare/contrast several works of art, both demonstrating and opposing one-point perspective. Students will also look at photographs of interior spaces (Gehry, Wright). Have students experience an interior within the school that demonstrates one-point perspective.
******Please keep your pencil lines light unless otherwise instructed to do so!
1. Place drawing paper horizontally. Use artist tape to secure paper to the table.
2. Using a ruler, draw a 1.5 x 3 inch rectangle anywhere on the paper, BUT do not place your rectangle too close to the edge. Stay about 3 inches away from the edge of your paper.
3. Place your ruler at a diagonal from corner-to-corner of your rectangle. Draw a diagonal line going through all four corners of your rectangle and outside the rectangle to the end of your paper. Do not draw any lines to the corners of your paper. Focus on the corners of the small rectangle. Your diagonal lines should make a big “X”.
4. From the corner of your rectangle to the edge of the paper, emphasize your diagonal by making it slightly darker, but not so dark that it can’t be erased. These lines will represent where your ceiling and floor meet the walls. Do not darken the diagonals inside the rectangle.
5. Place a dot where the two diagonal lines meet inside the rectangle. This will be the vanishing point. Use a ruler to draw a horizontal line through the vanishing point and across the paper. This will be the horizon line.
6. Use a ruler to draw about 20 convergence (or orthogonal) lines, starting at the vanishing point and fanning out to the edge of the paper. Try not to draw more than 20 convergence lines or there will be more for you to erase later!
7. Begin to decorate your bedroom with the following items: one bed, one window, 3 square/rectangular pictures on the walls (one blank, one with vertical lines and one with horizontal lines), 2 area rugs (add stripes to one), 2 dressers with drawers (one vertical, one horizontal) .Be sure to include all items and only these items to your design. Use your convergent lines to help you place the items at the correct one-point perspective in space keeping composition in mind at all times.
8. Using a black Sharpie marker, outline all the listed items in the bedroom. Trace the diagonals from the corner of your very first rectangle to the edge of the paper. Remember, these are the lines that define your ceiling, walls and floor. Do not trace any lines inside your rectangle UNLESS you have placed a picture on the back wall of your room.
9. Carefully and gently, use a kneaded eraser to eliminate all pencil lines and marks. If necessary, use more tape to secure your paper to the table. Take your time or your paper will tear.
10. Add color to the bedroom with colored pencils. First, color the background and then to the objects. Color hints: Using warm, intense colors will make objects pop. Using cool, less intense colors will make objects recede. Coloring in the direction of your convergent lines can also produce an added effect of depth!
Closure – Students will return supplies to their proper storage area and prepare for critique/discussion.
Critique and discuss whether the final bedroom designs were successful/unsuccessful. Compare student work to that of the major artist works that were reviewed at the start of class.
Evaluate student’s success and understanding of one-point perspective by reviewing their drawings and seeing how they have applied their knowledge of one-point perspective when in their bedroom design. Let students evaluate themselves with a checklist.
Assess student comprehension of one-point perspective by the success/failure of their bedroom designs.
Extensions: Students who finish early can begin researching two-point perspective by looking through the Frank Lloyd Wright and Frank Gehry books and finding buildings, which are seen from an angle. Students will also have the opportunity to draw from a still life of square boxes placed at angles.
Introduction and Motivation – 10 mins.
Class Demonstration/Participation – 20-30 minutes or more.
Perfect Bedroom activity – (3) 45-minute sessions
Vocabulary: composition, interior, Renaissance
Safety Concerns: Remind students to keep rulers on the table at all times.
Maddex, Diane. Frank Lloyd Wright, Inside and Out
Miller, Jason. Frank Gehry
The Milton D. Ratner Family Collection. Alberto Giacometti
The Royal Library at Windsor Castle. Leonardo: Studies for the Last Supper
Schaarschmide-Richter, Irmtraud (edited). Japanese Modern Art: Painting from 1910-1970
Whately, Alice. Contemporary Eastern
Friday, November 14, 2008
Brief History and Background
The term living statue refers to a mime artist who poses like a statue or mannequin, usually with realistic statue-like makeup, sometimes for hours at a time. This is an art that requires a great deal of patience and physical stamina.
Living statue performers have been known to pose as shop window mannequins in order to fool passersby, and a number of hidden camera shows on television have had living statues suddenly spring to life to startle people. As with all performing arts, living statue performers may perform as buskers or in commissioned shows. Some living statues are also invited to perform in fine arts exhibitions.
Tableau vivant is French for "living picture." The term describes a striking group of suitably costumed actors or artist's models, carefully posed and often theatrically lit. Throughout the duration of the display, the people shown do not speak or move. The approach thus marries the art forms of the stage with those of painting/photography, and as such it has been of interest to modern photographers.
The tableau vivant was a regular feature of medieval and Renaissance festivities and pageantry, such as royal weddings or royal entries by rulers into cities. Typically a group enacting a scene would be mounted on an elaborate stand decorated to look like a monument, placed on the route of the procession. In fact, the phrase and the practice probably began in medieval liturgical dramas such as the Golden Mass, where on special occasions a Mass was punctuated by short dramatic scenes and tableaus.
Before radio, film and television, tableau vivants were popular forms of entertainment. Before the age of color reproduction of images the tableau vivant (often abbreviated simply to tableau) was sometimes used to recreate paintings "on stage", based on an etching or sketch of the painting. This could be done as an amateur venture in a drawing room, or as a more professionally produced series of tableau presented on a theatre stage, one following another, usually to tell a story without requiring all the usual trappings of a "live" theatre performance. They thus 'educated' their audience to understand the form taken by later Victorian and Edwardian era magic lantern shows, and perhaps also sequential narrative comic strips (which first appeared in modern form in the late 1890s).
A tableau vivant-style production called the Pageant of the Masters has been held in Laguna Beach, California every summer since 1933 (with the exception of four years during World War II). It involves hundreds of volunteers drawn from the surrounding area and attracts over a hundred thousand visitors annually. The festival recreates famous works of art on the stage. It has a different theme each year, but always features a recreation of Leonardo Da Vinci's "The Last Supper." The only time Da Vinci's "Last Supper" did not appear was when the festival's theme was Salvador Dali, in which case Dali's "Last Supper" filled the void.
Duane Hanson was an American sculptor known for his life-cast, realistic works of people, cast in various materials, including polyester resin, fiberglass, Bondo and bronze. His work is often associated with the Pop Art movement, as well as hyperrealism.
Starting in the mid-1980s, Hanson's works were cast in bronze. His works exact and made via life-casting, the pieces created from epoxy resin or bronze, and the whole sculpture painted to faithfully resemble a living person. This combined with handpicked wigs, clothing and accessories means that Hanson's works are perfect simulacra, often fooling gallery visitors with their ordinary appearance and casual stances.
Hanson chose to sculpt working-class citizens, unremarkable people going about their business. In transforming them into highly complex works of art, he highlighted the activities and societal roles of everyday people.
(Above image: Traveler,1988, auto body filler, fiberglass and mixed media with accessories life size, Saatchi Gallery, London Contemporary Art Gallery, London)
Types of Writing (1.5); Speaking and Listening (1.6); Production, Performance and Exhibition of Dance, Music, Theater and Visual Arts (9.1); Historical and Cultural Contexts (9.2), Critical Response (9.3), Aesthetic Response (9.4); Physical Activity (10.4)
Goal: In groups, students will use their knowledge of tableau vivant, the social commentary in Duane Hanson’s life-like sculpture and physical stamina to create and exhibit human sculptures to the class.
- Students will briefly discuss the definition of sculpture and how, at times, it can be more powerful than two-dimensional art.
- Students will discuss tableau vivant and Duane Hanson’s life-like sculptures.
- Students will discuss the similarities/differences between social commentary (Duane Hanson sculpture) and entertainment (tableau vivant).
- Students (in groups) will brainstorm and come up with a social issue (i.e. homeless, school violence, poor economy) and work cooperatively to interpret the commentary in a living sculpture using themselves and three props.
- As a group, students will write a 3-5 narrative about their sculpture without revealing what social issue the sculpture depicts and will read it to the groups prior to any guessing of what the social commentary might be.
- Students will be given the opportunity to view each other’s group sculptures and offer guesses as to what kind of social commentary is being conveyed.
- Students will critique sculptures and comment on their effectiveness.
Resource Materials/ Visual Aids:
• PowerPoint presentation (including videos)
• Images of performers and Duane Hanson’s sculptures (either printed or projected during activity)
• Props (depending on the number of students in the class)
• Paper and writing utensils (for writing and sketching, if necessary)
• Research tableau vivant and Duane Hanson to prepare a short PowerPoint as an introduction
• Gather objects for props
• Print out images of Duane Hanson sculptures, if necessary
• Make sure room is equipped with screen, projector and hook-ups
Introduction: In a PowerPoint presentation, show students an image of a living statue (Living statue in Rome, Italy. The performer is presumably recreating the look of bronze. What you cannot see is his perfect stillness. He stirs a little, and yawns, only when a coin is dropped into the collecting bowl) and a Duane Hanson sculpture (Traveller,1988, autobody filler, fiberglass and mixed media with accessories life size, Saatchi Gallery, London Contemporary Art Gallery, London) Ask the students what they see (sculpture). What are both of the sculptures trying to convey, if anything? Ask them to describe both and see if they can guess which image is of a sculpture or live statue. Ask them to explain how they came to their conclusions. Reveal the truth about the images and segue into tableau vivant and Duane Hanson and social commentary. Briefly discuss tableau vivant and then Duane Hanson to make the necessary connections (social commentary, consumerism). Prepare for activity.
1. Divide students into groups of 4-5 students and explain that they will become live sculptures based on a social commentary/issue of some kind.
2. Students will get together in groups and teacher will pass out three props to each group.
3. Groups will have 10 minutes to pick a social issue that they would like to “sculpt” and create their sculpture.
4. One student in each group will write a short narrative (3-5 sentences) of the group commentary without revealing the social concern they are trying to depict. This student will not participate in the sculpture, but will act as narrator and read the group narrative.
5. Be sure to remind students that they are to remain respectful of each other’s personal space and personal views. Students are to remain mindful of how they present their commentary.
6. After ten minutes of brainstorming and creating, each group will present and narrate their living sculpture to the class.
7. Groups will have a few minutes to guess what the sculpture might be saying. Once the answer is revealed, groups will offer short critiques (successes, failures, confusion, improvements) and discuss elements that may have influenced their guesses.
8. While the students are conversing, teacher will document sculptures through photography.
Groups that finish early will be given a Duane Hanson image or an image of a living statue to write a fictional narrative about what they see.
Critique/ Evaluation/ Assessment
1) Comprehension of tableau vivant and the art of Duane Hanson through class discussion.
2) Participation and cooperation in a group activity to create a living sculpture of a social concern, issue or commentary and present it (with a short, written narrative) to the class. Worked cohesively for a common end.
3) Participation in guessing what each sculpture is trying to convey as well as group critique.
4) Overall cooperation with group members with little or no intervention by the teacher.
Intro: 5-7 minutes
Activity: 10 minutes
Group Presentations, Participation and Critique: 15-20 minutes
Vocabulary: sculpture, tableau vivant, Duane Hanson, social commentary, narrative, consumerism, hyperrealism (blurs line between reality and fantasy; photorealism; photo reference)